Employment and Education
2014-NOW: ARC Future Fellow, Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University.
2008-2013: ARC QEII Fellow, School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia.
2004-2008: Postdoctoral Research Fellow (pmd*CRC), School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia.
2001-2003: Postdoctoral Stipendiat, Geological Survey of Norway, 40Ar-39Ar Geochronology Centre, Trondheim, Norway.
2001: Postdoc. School of Earth Science, University of Manchester, UK.
1997-2000: PhD Isotope Geochemistry, School of Earth Science, University of Manchester, UK. Supervisors: G Turner, R Burgess, RAD Pattrick
1992-1996: BSc (Hons) Geology 1st class, Geology and Geophysics, The University of Edinburgh, UK.
Member of the European Association of Geochemistry (EAG)
Member of the American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Member of TANG3O (Thermochronology And Noble Gas Geochemistry and Geochronology Organization)
My research interests encompass the roles of fluids, melts and volatiles (H2O, CO2, halogens, noble gases) in a wide range of geological settings from sedimentary basins at the top of the Earth's crust to the Earth's deep mantle interior. Saline fluids are important for the transport of metals in solution and can lead to the formation of economically important ore deposits. Magmatic volatiles are exsolved from melts to form fluids that influence metamorphic processes and the presence of volatiles controls the violence of volcanic eruptions.
I use a range of geochemical and petrologic techniques to investigate volatiles, fluids and melts, however, much of my research is underpinned by a novel method for high precision measurements of halogens (Cl, Br, I) together with noble gases. I established this method, which represents an extension of the 40Ar-39Ar geochronological method, at RSES, making the ANU noble gas laboratory one of only two laboratories with this capability globally. I combine this method with standard noble gas analyses and I have lead its application to fluid inclusions, metamorphic rocks and magmatic glasses.
My current research focuses include the alteration of the oceanic crust (see Fig) and the role of halogens in arc-related magmatic processes. The unifying aim of these projects is to improve our understanding of global-scale volatile re-cycling processes; that is the extent to which plate tectonic processes have caused volatiles to be exchanged between Earth’s surface reservoirs (seawater, air and sediments) and the Earth’s interior over geological time.
The Figure shows maps of Ca and Cl in metagabbro from the Mathematician Ridge, NE Pacific: the Ca data distinguish the main minerals and show pyroxene replacement by amphibole and albitisation of the plagioclase. The concentration of Cl in amphibole varies over short distances as a result of fluctuations in the salinity of the amphibole forming fluids.
Participation in IODP expeditions
I am excited to be joining IODP Expedition 360 at the end of 2015. The ultimate aim of the expedition titled ‘SW Indian Ridge Lower Crust and Moho’ is to drill through the seismic Moho which separates the oceanic crust from the underlying mantle. Achieving this objective will provide new information about the extent of lithospheric hydration which has important implications for the structure of the oceanic crust and volatile recycling processes. Furthermore, extensive core recovery from gabbros in layer 3 of the crust will provide critical information about oceanic hydrothermal root zones.
Morgan Williams is part of the onshore scientific party of Expedition 357 titled ‘Atlantis Massif Seafloor Processes: Serpentinization and Life’. Morgan will collect samples in a transect across the Atlantis Field and then measure boron isotopes and halogens to investigate spatial variation in serpentinisation processes and the utility of Br and I (which are involved in several biochemical pathways) as biomarkers.
Previous Research Highlights
Quantifying the extent of brine assimilation by oceanic magmas
Combined analysis of Cl, Br, I, F, H2O and trace elements in magmatic glasses, shows that high salinity brines generated at depths of 2-3 km are the most common source of the seawater components assimilated by oceanic magmas and that there is no evidence for assimilation of seawater or altered oceanic crust close to the seafloor.
The lavas most severely affected by brine assimilation have typically assimilated up to 70 % of their total Cl and 30% of their total water. This is equivalent to a litre of melt assimilating 7 cm3 of a brine with 50 wt % salts (Fig). Combined analysis of Cl, Br and I in magmatic glasses is also proving critical for distinguishing between alternative volatile sources in arc magmas. These methodologies are now being applied to better constrain the fate of halogens in subduction zones.
Serpentinites as a pathway for noble gas subduction
In order to rigorously test the efficiency of the so called ‘Noble Gas Subduction Barrier', we undertook a combined study of noble gases and halogens in seafloor serpentinites and their metamorphosed and dehydrated equivalents preserved in ophiolite sequences in the Italian Alps and Betic Cordillera of Spain.
Fig. a) Antigorite serpentine cut by olivine-titanium clinohumite veins, Erro Tobbio, Italy; b) Spinifex textured olivine in enstatite dominated matrix, Betic Cordiller, Spain. scale bar = 1 cm
The results show that noble gases and halogens have high concentrations in serpentine and preserve relative abundance ratios strikingly similar to marine sediment pore waters. This is most easily explained if sediment pore waters, as well as seawater, are involved in serpentinisation, which is likely to occur distal to mid-ocean ridges. Furthermore, while ~90% of the noble gases initially present in serpentinites are lost during eclogite facies metamorphism, the dehydrated olivine-enstatite residue formed by completed breakdown of serpentine (Fig b) retains a noble gas concentration of one to two orders of magnitude more than the mantle. Serpentinites are therefore established as a major breach in the noble gas subduction barrier.
The ability to subduct chemically inert noble gases in serpentinites (and other hydrous minerals) has significant implications for interpretation of mantle noble gas systematics and our understanding of planetary evolution. The work on serpentinites from the seafloor to eclogite facies has been published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters and Nature Geoscience and is summarised for a popular audience in Cosmos magazine.
The sources and reactions of mineralising fluids
Noble gases and halogens can provide powerful constraints on the sources of fluids and their acquisition of salinity, which is critical to testing genetic models for ore mineralisation. These methods have been applied to a number of deposit styles including: i) Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn-fluorite deposits (e.g. sediment-hosted epigenetic deposits), ii) magmatic porphyry copper deposits, iii) orogenic gold deposits formed under transitional greenschist-amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions, and iv) iron-oxide-copper-gold deposits formed under amphibolite facies conditions. The work has been summarised in chapter 11 of The Noble Gases as Geochemical Tracers, and a single example is given below.
Iron-oxide-copper-gold deposits are formed from ultra-saline (60 wt. % salt) fluids with contested origin. The origin of the fluids has significant implications for exploration, but the relative importance of magmatic fluids and evaporite dissolution remain hotly debated. The figure shows combined halogen (Cl, Br, I) and noble gas data for fluid inclusions in mineralisation-related quartz veins from the Ernest Henry deposit, in the Mt Isa Inlier of Australia. Basinal fluids that have dissolved halite are distinguished by low 40Ar/36Ar, low Br/Cl and low I/Cl. In contrast, magmatic fluids (which appear to have a similar range of salinities) are characterised by highly radiogenic noble gas signatures, including high 40Ar/36Ar, and mantle-like Br/Cl and I/Cl (see Fig).
The Ernest Henry data shows that both magmatic fluids and evaporite dissolution can be involved in mineralisation (Fig). However, on a regional basis, the magmatic noble gas signature is well preserved in CO2-rich fluid inclusions associated with barren carbonate veins and albitisation in the Mary Kathleen Foldbelt, and it is not observed in all of the regions ore deposits. Therefore the presence of magmatic fluids does not guarantee the formation of an iron-oxide-copper-gold deposit, but regional intrusions are important heat engines for driving fluid advection that can lead to mineralisation. It appears that within this framework saline fluids of either magmatic or basinal origin can become ‘mineralising’ by interaction with Cu-rich lithologies.
55. Kendrick M.A. 2016. Argon. In: White, M.W. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Geochemistry: A Comprehensive Reference Source on the Chemistry of the Earth. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 1-3.
54. Kendrick M.A. 2016. Chlorine. In: White, M.W. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Geochemistry: A Comprehensive Reference Source on the Chemistry of the Earth. Springer International Publishing, Cham, in press.
53. Kendrick M.A. 2016. Halogens. In: White, M.W. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Geochemistry: A Comprehensive Reference Source on the Chemistry of the Earth. Springer International Publishing, Cham, in press.
52. Marks, M.A.W., Kendrick, M.A., Eby, N.G., Zack, T., Wenzel, T., 2016. The F, Cl, Br and I Contents of Reference Glasses BHVO‐2G, BIR‐1G, BCR‐2G, GSD‐1G, GSE‐1G, NIST SRM 610 and NIST SRM 612. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research.
51. Dick et al. (2016) International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 360 Preliminary Report: Southwest Indian Ridge Lower Crust and Moho the nature of the lower crust and Moho at slower spreading ridges (SloMo Leg 1) International Ocean Discovery Program. http://dx.doi.org/10.14379/iodp.pr.360.2016
50. Kendrick, M.A., Honda, M., Vanko, D.A., 2015. Halogens and noble gases in Mathematician Ridge meta-gabbros, NE Pacific: implications for oceanic hydrothermal root zones and global volatile cycles. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 170(5-6): 1-20.
49. Kendrick M.A., Jackson M.G., Hauri E.H., Phillips D., 2015, The halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) and H2O systematics of Samoan Lavas: assimilated-seawater, EM2 and high 3He/4He components, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 410, 197-209.
48. Marschik, R. and Kendrick, M.A., 2014, Noble gas and halogen constraints on fluid sources in iron-oxide-copper-gold mineralization: Mantoverde and La Candelaria, northern Chile, Mineralium Deposita 50, 357-371.
47. Jackson, M.G., Koga, K.T., Price, A., Konter, J.G., Koppers, A.A.P., Finlayson, V.A., Konrad, K., Hauri, E.H., Kylander-Clark, A., Kelley, K.A., Kendrick, M.A., 2015. Deeply dredged submarine HIMU glasses from the Tuvalu Islands, Polynesia: Implications for volatile budgets of recycled oceanic crust. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16, doi. 10.1002/2015GC005966.
46. Kendrick, M.A., Arculus, R.J., Danyushevsky, L.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Woodhead, J.D., Honda, M., 2014, Subduction-related halogens (Cl, Br and I) and H2O in magmatic glasses from Southwest Pacific Backarc Basins. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 400, 165-176.
45. Kendrick, M.A., Jackson, M., Kent, A., Hauri, E., Wallace, P., Woodhead, J., 2013, Contrasting Behaviour of CO2, H2O, S and halogens in enriched mantle melts from the Society and Pitcairn seamounts. Chemical Geology, 370, 69-81.
44. Richard, A., Kendrick, M.A., Cathelineau, M., 2013, The origin of mineralizing brines in Proterozoic unconformity-related U deposits: New insights from noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) and halogens (Cl, Br, I) in fluid inclusions. Precam. Res. 247, 110-125.
43. Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Maas R., Woodhead J.D., Kendrick, M.A., Greig A., Armstrong R., Chew D., Kamenetsky V.S. Fiorentini M.L., 2014, LIMA U-Pb ages link lithospheric mantle metasomatism to Karoo magmatism beneath the Kimberley region, South Africa. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 401, 132-147.
42. Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Phillips, D., Fiorentini, M.L., Farquhar, J., Kendrick, M.A., 2014, Stable isotope (C, O, S) composition of volatile-rich minerals in kimberlites: a review. Chemical Geology 374-375, 61-83.
41. Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kendrick, M.A., Wyatt, B.A., Goemann, K., Hutchinson, G., 2014. Petrogenesis of mantle polymict breccias: Insights into mantle processes coeval with kimberlite magmatism. Journal of Petrology 55, 831-858.
40. Fu, B., Mernagh, T.P., Fairmaid, A.M., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M.A., 2014. CH4-N2 in the Maldon gold deposit, central Victoria, Australia. Ore Geology Reviews 58, 225-237.
39. Kendrick, M. A., Honda, M., Pettke, T., Scambelluri, M., Phillips, D., Giuliani, A., 2013, Subduction Zone Fluxes of Halogens and Noble gases in Seafloor and Forearc Serpentinites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 365, 86-96.
38. Kendrick, M.A., Arculus, R., Burnard, P., Homda, M., 2013, Quantifying brine assimilation by sub-marine magmas: Examples from the Galápagos Spreading Centre and Lau Basin. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 123, 150-165.
37. Kendrick, M. A. and Burnard P., 2013, Noble gases and halogens in fluid inclusions: A journey through the Earth’s crust. In. Burnard P. (Ed.) The Noble gases as Geochemical Tracers. Springer.
36. Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kendrick, M.A., Phillips, D., Goemann, K., 2013, Nickel-rich metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle by pre-kimberlitic alkali-S-Cl-rich C-O-H fluids. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 165, 155-171.
35. Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Kendrick, M.A., Phillips, D., Wyatt, B.A., Maas, R., 2013, Oxide, sulphide and carbonate minerals in a mantle polymict breccia: Metasomatism by proto-kimberlite magmas, and relationship to the kimberlite megacrystic suite. Chemical Geology 353, 4-18.
34. Giuliani, A., Phillips, D., Fiorentini, M.L., Kendrick, M.A., Maas R., Wing B., Woodhead, J.D., Bui, T.H., Kamenetsky, V.S., 2013, Mantle oddities: A sulphate fluid preserved in a MARID xenolith from the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa), Earth and Planetary Science Letters 376, 74-86.
33. Kendrick, M. A., Woodhead, J., Kamenetsky, V., 2012, Tracking halogens through the subduction cycle, Geology 40, 1075-1078.
32. Kendrick, M. A., Kamenetsky, V. S., Phillips, D., and Honda, M., 2012, Halogen (Cl, Br, I) systemtics of mid-ocean ridge basalts: a Macquarie Island case study, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 81, 82-93.
31. Kendrick, M. A., 2012, High precision Cl, Br and I determination in mineral standards using the noble gas method, Chemical Geology 292-293, 116-126.
30. Fu, B., Kendrick, M.A., Fairmaid, A.M., Phillips, D., Wilson, C.J.L. 2012. New Constraints on Fluid Sources in Orogenic Gold Deposits, Victoria, Australia. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 163, 427-447.
29. Phillips, D., Fu, B., Wilson, C.J.L., Kendrick, M.A., Fairmaid, A., Miller, J.McL., 2012, Timing of gold mineralisation in the western Lachlan Orogen, SE Australia: A Critical Overview. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 59, 495-525.
28. Honda, M., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M.A., Gagan, M., Taylor, W.R., 2012, Noble Gas and Carbon Isotope Ratios in Diamonds from the Argyle Lamproite, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 59, 1135-1142.
27. Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, V.S., Phillips, D., Kendrick, M.A., Wyatt, B.A., Goemann, K., 2012, The nature of alkali-carbonate fluids in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Geology 40, 967-970.
26. Kendrick, M.A., Scambelluri, M., Honda, M., Phillips, D. 2011. High Abundances of Noble Gases and Chlorine Delivered to the Mantle by Serpentinite Subduction. Nature Geoscience 4, 807-812.
25. Kendrick, M.A., Honda, M., Oliver, N.H.S., Phillips, D. 2011. The noble gas systematics of late-orogenic H2O-CO2 fluids, Mt Isa, Australia Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 1428-1450.
24. Kendrick, M.A., Honda, M., Walshe J.W., Petersen, K. 2011. Fluid Sources and the Role of Abiogenic-CH4 in Archean Gold Mineralization: Evidence from Noble Gases and Halogens. Precambrian Research 189, 313-327.
23. Kendrick, M.A., Wallace, M., Phillips, D., Miller, J.McL. 2011. Halogen and Noble Gas Systematics of Sedimentary Formation Waters and sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits: a Case Study from the Lennard Shelf, Australia. Applied Geochemistry 26, 2089-2100.
22. Fairmaid, A.M. Kendrick M.A. and Phillips, D. and Fu, B., 2011. The Origin and Evolution of Mineralising Fluids in a Sediment-Hosted Orogenic-Gold Deposit, Ballerat East, south-eastern Australia. Economic Geology 106, 653-666.
21. Murphy, F.C., Hutton, L.J., Walshe, J.L., Cleverley J.S., Kendrick, M.A., McLellan, J., Rubenach, M.J., Oliver, N.H.S., Gessner, K., Bierlein, F.P., Jupp, B., Ailleres, L., Laukamp, C., Roy, I.G., Miller, J. McL. Miller, Keys, D. and Nortje G.S. 2011. Mineral system analysis of the Mt Isa-McArthur River region, Northern Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 58, 849-873.
20. Williams, P.J., Kendrick, M.A. and Xavier, R.P., 2010, Sources of ore fluid components in IOCG deposits. In, Porter, T.M., ed., Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold and Related Deposits: A Global Perspective, v.3, Advances in the Understanding of IOCG Deposits. PGC Publishing, Adelaide. (pp. 107-116). ISBN: 978-0-9871196-0-5
19. Kendrick, M.A. and Phillips, D., 2009. New constraints on the release of noble gases during in vacuo crushing and application to scapolite Br-Cl-I and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 5673-5692.
18. Kendrick, M.A. and Phillips, D., 2009. Discussion of 'the Paleozoic metamorphic history of the Central Orogenic Belt of China from 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of eclogite garnet fluid inclusions by Qiu Hua-Ning and Wijbrans J.R.' Earth and Planetary Science Letters 279, 392-394.
17. Kendrick, M.A., Honda, M., Gillen, D., Baker, T., and Phillips, D., 2008. New constraints on regional brecciation in the Wernecke Mountains, Canada, from He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Cl, Br and I in fluid inclusions. Chemical Geology 255, 33-46.
16. Kendrick, M.A., Baker, T., Fu, B., Phillips, D., and Williams, P. J., 2008. Noble gas and halogen constraints on regionally extensive mid-crustal Na-Ca metasomatism, the Proterozoic Eastern Mount Isa Block, Australia. Precambrian Research 163, 131-150.
15. Fisher, L. and Kendrick, M.A., 2008. Metamorphic fluid origins in the Osborne Fe oxide–Cu–Au deposit, Australia: evidence from noble gases and halogens. Mineralium Deposita 43, 483-497.
14. Kendrick, M.A., Mark, G., and Phillips, D., 2007. Mid-crustal fluid mixing in a Proterozoic Fe oxide-Cu-Au deposit, Ernest Henry, Australia: Evidence from Ar, Kr, Xe, Cl, Br, and I. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256, 328-343.
13. Kendrick, M.A., 2007. Comment on 'Paleozoic ages and excess Ar-40 in garnets from the Bixiling eclogite in Dabieshan, China: New insights from Ar-40/Ar-39 dating by stepwise crushing by Hua-Ning Qiu and JR Wijbrans'. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 6040-6045.
12. Kendrick M.A., Phillips, D., and Miller J., 2006a, Part I: Decrepitation and degassing behaviour of quartz upto 1560 C: Analysis of noble gases and halogens in complex fluid inclusion assemblages. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 2540-2561.
11. Kendrick M.A., Miller J., Phillips, D., 2006b, Part II: Evaluation of 40Ar-39Ar quartz ages: Implications for fluid inclusion retentivity and determination of initial 40Ar/36Ar values in Proterozoic samples. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 2562-76.
10. Kendrick, M.A., Duncan, R., and Phillips, D., 2006. Noble gas and halogen constraints on mineralizing fluids of metamorphic versus surficial origin: Mt Isa, Australia. Chemical Geology 235, 325-351.
9. Osmundesen P.T., Eide E.A., Haabseland N.E., Roberts D., Andersen T.B., Kendrick M., Bingen B., Braathen A. and Redfield T., 2006, Kinematics of the Høybakken detachment zone and the Møre-Trondelag Fault Complex, central Norway. Journal of the Geological Society, London 163, 303-318.
8. Kendrick M.A., Burgess R., Harrison D., Bjorlykke A., 2005, Noble gas and Halogen Evidence for the origin of Scandinavian sandstone-hosted Pn-Zn deposits, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69, 109-129.
7. Eide E.A., Haabesland N.E., Osmundsen P.T., Andersen T.B., Roberts D., Kendrick M.A., 2005 Modern techniques and Old Red problems - determining the age of continental sedimentary deposits with 40Ar/39Ar provenance analysis in west-central Norway. Norwegian Journal of Geology 85, 133-149.
6. Kendrick, M.A., E.A. Eide, D. Roberts, P.T. Osmundsen, 2004, The Mid-Late Devonian Høybakken Detachment, Central Norway: 40Ar/39Ar evidence for prolonged late/post-Scandian extension and uplift. Geological Magazine 141 (3), 329-344.
5. Kendrick, M.A., Burgess, R, Pattrick, R.A.D., and Turner, G., 2002, Hydrothermal fluid origins in a fluorite-rich Mississippi Valley-Type District: Combined noble gas (He, Ar, Kr) and halogen (Cl, Br, I) analysis of fluid inclusions from the South Pennine Ore field, United Kingdom, Economic Geology 97, 435-451.
4. Kendrick, M.A., Burgess, R, Leach, D., and Pattrick, R.A.D, 2002, Hydrothermal fluid origins in Mississippi Valley-Type Districts: Combined noble gas (He, Ar, Kr) and halogen (Cl, Br, I) analysis of fluid inclusions from the Illinois-Kentucky Fluorspar district; Viburnum Trend, and Tri-State Districts, Midcontinent United States. Economic Geology 97, 453-469.
3. Eide E.A., Osmundsen P.T., Meyer G.B., Kendrick M.A., and Corfu F., 2002, The Nesna Shear Zone, north-central Norway: an 40Ar/39Ar record of Early Devonian – Early Carboniferous ductile extension and unroofing. Norwegian Journal of Geology 82, 317-340.
2. Kendrick, M.A., Burgess, R, Pattrick, R.A.D., and Turner, G., 2001, Halogen and Ar-Ar age determinations of inclusions within quartz veins from porphyry copper deposits using complementary noble gas extraction techniques, Chemical Geology 177, 351-370.
1. Kendrick, M.A., Burgess, R, Pattrick, R.A.D., and Turner, G., 2001, Fluid inclusion noble gas and halogen evidence on the origin of Cu-Porphyry mineralising fluids, Geochimicha et Cosmochimicha Acta 65, 2651-2668.